Talking about the weather in Russian

Weather... it is very crazy sometimes. Especially here, in Russia. Because our country is huge and the climate varies in different parts of it. When it's snowing in the north, it can be still warm in the south. 

So, the weather takes a huge part of our everyday conversation. We talk about the weather with our friends, neighbours, acquaintances even if it doesn't make sense. But how do we talk about the weather in Russian? How can we describe a nasty or a good weather? Let's find out!

Weather vocabulary

погода - weather
прогноз погоды - weather forcast
облачность - overcast
солнце - sun
небо - sky
облако - cloud
туча - black cloud (before rain)
ветер - wind
дождь (m.) - rain
ливень (m.) - shower
снег - snow
град - hail
росá - dew
тумáн - fog
грозá - thunderstorm
шторм - storm

Describing good or bad weather

Useful phrases

Хорошая погода. - A good weather. 
Сегодня хорошая погода. - It's good weather today
Плохая погода. - A bad weather.
Солнечно. - It's sunny. 
Завтра будет солнечно. - Tomorrow will be a sunny day. 
Облачно/пасмурно - It's cloudy.
Холодно. - It's cold.
Тепло. - It's warm.
Жарко. - It's hot.

Note that we use adverbs ending in -o here to describe the weather. We can also use adjectives with nouns but if we just want to make a short statement about how the weather is it's better to do it with adverbs like пасмурно, холодно, жарко etc. These two are similar: сегодня солнечная погода and сегодня солнечно (it's sunny today), however the second one is more common. Collocations "жаркая погода" or "холодная погода" sound quite unnatural. 

Adjectives to describe the weather

холодный - cold (холодный ветер - cold wind, холодная вода - cold water)
теплый - warm (теплый день - a warm day, теплая погода - warm weather, теплое время суток - the warm part of the day)
жаркий - hot 
морозный - freezing
туманный - foggy
солнечный - sunny
дождливый - rainy
пасмурный/облачный - cloudy
прохладный - cool

General phrases about the weather and concrete examples

Идет снег. - It's snowing.
Идет дождь. - It's raining.
Дует ветер. - The wind is blowing.
Солнце светит. - The sun is shining.

Notice that we use the verb "идти" with raining and snowing. We literally say that the snow or the rain "goes". It's another funny thing about the Russian language. 
Here are some collocations with the word дождь (rain):

Here are some phrases to describe certain weather conditions:

Сегодня очень сильный ветер. - The wind is very strong today.
Небо так быстро темнеет. Скоро пойдет дождь. - The sky is getting dark so quickly. It's going to rain soon.
Сегодня довольно прохладно. Завтра обещают жаркий день. - Today it is quite cool. The weather forecasters promise a hot day for tomorrow.

See also: Seasons and months in Russian

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